Threshing of rice paddy by animal treading. A layer of harvested stalks is spread on the ground and a group of oxen is driven slowly over to trample or thresh the grain from the panicles. Loss components to be considered at threshing, are scattered and unseparated grains. - - Action Programme for the Prevention of Food Losses. During the past few years, the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) has launched a number of national programmes for the Prevention of Food Losses (PFL). With the experience gained by the PFL programme, methods of assessing loss in rice post-harvest operations have been developed. Also, in countries where loss assessment studies have been carried out, points have been identified where losses are occurring and where loss interventions are needed in the different post-harvest operations. At present, the main emphasis of the PFL programme is to utilize this available information in introducing and evaluating loss reduction programmes in places and operations where they are needed in order to improve the post-harvest system in balance with production.